Abdominal aortic aneurism
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA): refers to when the diameter of abdominal aorta expands to 1.5 times the normal diameter, and is the most common artery dilation disease. The rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm could result in hemorrhage, threatening life of the patient. Once ruptured the mortality rate can be as high as 70-90%, however with elective surgery the mortality rate can be reduce to below 5%. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are very important.
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Symptoms
Therapeutic solutions: Endovascular Aortic Repair
Endovascular Aortic Repair (EVAR) is an alternative to open surgery and has the advantage of less trauma, faster recovery, fewer complications and fewer contra-indications. During EVAR, under the constant monitoring of DSA, a folded metal scaffold covered with artificial vascular membrane is delivered into the abdominal aorta through the bilateral common femoral artery approach, and then placed into the aneurysm cavity according to the stent positioning set before operation. The stent is fixed onto the artery wall near and distal to the aneurysm by using the self-expanding property of the metal scaffold and the barb on the bare segment of the scaffold (to withstand the impact of high pressure blood flow on the aortic wall). Then, the aortic wall of the aneurysm and stent membrane form blood thrombosis and structure, this achieves the purpose of isolating the aneurysm and treating the disease.
Aortic Dissection Symptoms
Pain: The onset of acute aortic dissection is sudden, and greater than 90% of patients experience sudden severe tearing or knife like pain in the anterior chest, back or the abdomen, and the pain can be transferred along the aorta towards the upper or lower abdomen.
Sudden Death: When the ascending aorta is ruptured, acute cardiac tamponade could occur due to blood entering the pericardial cavity.
Neurological Symptoms: When aortic dissection affects the brachiocephalic artery, cerebral blood supply disorders could occur, such as syncope, coma, hemiplegia, etc.
Abdominal Pain: When dissection affects abdominal parenchymal organs.
Lower limb ischemia: Symptoms involve the traditional 5 Ps of acute ischemia in a limb (i.e., pain, paresthesia, pallor, pulselessness, poikilothermia).
After diagnosis of thoracic aortic aneurysm, active treatment including surgical thoracotomy and endovascular repair should be carried out.